Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited (MUA.mu) listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius under the Insurance sector has released it’s 2013 abridged results.For more information about Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited (MUA.mu) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited (MUA.mu) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited (MUA.mu) 2013 abridged results.Company ProfileMauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited offers general insurance for individuals and corporates. The company operates through Casualty, Property, Life, and Other segments, where the Casualty segment offers motor, liability and cash in transit, personal accident and health insurance products. The Property segment provides fire and allied perils, engineering, marine, and all risks insurance products. The Life segment offers life and pension insurance products. The Other segment provides stock-broking services. The company provides additional financial services as well, where housing, educational and vehicle loans are offered. Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited has four subsidiaries that work under it, Feber Associates Ltd, National Mutual Fund Ltd and Phoenix TransAfrica Holdings Ltd are fully owned subsidiaries. The Group also owns an 80% stake in Associated Brokers Ltd. Mauritius Union Assurance Co. Limited is listed on the Stock Exchange of Mauritius.
May & Baker Nigeria Plc (MAYBAK.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Pharmaceuticals sector has released it’s 2019 abridged results.For more information about May & Baker Nigeria Plc (MAYBAK.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the May & Baker Nigeria Plc (MAYBAK.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: May & Baker Nigeria Plc (MAYBAK.ng) 2019 abridged results.Company ProfileMay & Baker Nigeria Plc manufactures and markets a range of pharmaceuticals, vaccines, medical diagnostics, foods and consumer healthcare products in Nigeria. Pharmaceutical products include anti-diabetics, anti-infectives, anti-malaria, analgesics, cough & cold treatments, multivitamins and anxiolytics. May & Bake Nigeria Plc produce a range of Mimee noodles and Lily still water. The company’s head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. May & Baker Nigeria Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
Rector Albany, NY Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR [Anglican Communion News Service] Bishop of the Episcopal Church of Spain Don Carlos Lopez-Lozano has expressed thanks for the support received from throughout the Anglican Communion in the wake of the deadly attack in Barcelona’s main tourist area on Aug. 17. Priests from the Spanish Episcopal Church have attended to the wounded in hospital and are offering support to families of the victims.Full article. Posted Aug 21, 2017 Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI P.J. Cabbiness says: Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Submit a Press Release Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Youth Minister Lorton, VA Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Rector Knoxville, TN This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 Rector Collierville, TN Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Associate Rector Columbus, GA Comments (1) Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Rector Hopkinsville, KY Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Submit a Job Listing Rector Belleville, IL Submit an Event Listing Anglican Communion Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis Director of Music Morristown, NJ Tags Rector Washington, DC Anglican Communion offers prayers for victims of Barcelona attack Press Release Service TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab August 22, 2017 at 2:02 pm We must pray for the victims of this and other terrorist attacks and never accept religious violence as ordinary or routine. Comments are closed. Featured Jobs & Calls Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Rector Smithfield, NC Rector Martinsville, VA Featured Events Rector Bath, NC Rector Pittsburgh, PA An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET Rector Tampa, FL Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Course Director Jerusalem, Israel Rector Shreveport, LA Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Curate Diocese of Nebraska
ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/936394/the-summit-house-architecture-architecture Clipboard ArchDaily Architects: Architecture Architecture Area Area of this architecture project “COPY” The Summit House / Architecture architecture ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/936394/the-summit-house-architecture-architecture Clipboard Manufacturers: Danpal, CSR, DuPont, LOCKER GROUP, Okalux, Darkon, Timberzoo Products translation missing: en-US.post.svg.material_description Photographs: Tom Ross Manufacturers Brands with products used in this architecture project 2019 Year: Design Team:Nick James, Michael RoperEngineering:Meyer ConsultingBuilder:Sinjen Group
City:MelbourneCountry:AustraliaMore SpecsLess SpecsSave this picture!© Tom RossText description provided by the architects. The Summit is a renovation and extension to an idiosyncratic late modernist home in Malvern. The original house features a boldly curved roof, delicately supported on a string of steel posts. A curved wall of glass emulates the roof form, bending inwards to create a side courtyard. With glass and garden on all sides, the house is awash with natural light.Save this picture!© Tom RossSave this picture!Ground floor planSave this picture!© Tom RossWorking collaboratively with the builders at Sinjen Group, Architecture architecture have retained and celebrated these existing features. The living spaces have been remodeled to expose more of the curved glass, bringing them into immediate contact with the courtyard. The original curved ceiling has also been retained and is now lined with timber battens to accentuate this unique feature. Save this picture!© Tom RossWhere an upper-level extension has been added, Architecture architecture has been careful not to dilute the clarity of the curved roof. Sensitively perched as if to hover over the original, it allows the new and old to exist harmoniously.Save this picture!© Tom RossSave this picture!© Tom RossAt the rear of the property, the design vision finds full force, introducing an entirely contemporary composition of two parts, respectively grounded and lofty. Save this picture!© Tom RossProject gallerySee allShow lessRestaurante y Café Fresco / Hitzig Militello ArquitectosSelected ProjectsT Roof Nan Cafe in Taoyuan Village / Atelier LAISelected Projects Share “COPY” The Summit House / Architecture architectureSave this projectSaveThe Summit House / Architecture architectureSave this picture!© Tom Ross+ 24Curated by Paula Pintos Share Area: 300 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project Photographs Houses CopyHouses•Melbourne, Australia Australia Projects CopyAbout this officeArchitecture ArchitectureOffice•••#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesMelbourneOn FacebookAustraliaPublished on March 27, 2020Cite: “The Summit House / Architecture architecture” 27 Mar 2020. ArchDaily. Accessed 10 Jun 2021.
About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. Volunteering programme Spice reaches 25,000 members AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis5 68 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis5 Spice, the volunteering programme that rewards people through alternative currency Time Credits, has now reached 25,000 members, with over 450,000 hours volunteered.Peter West (pictured), from Preston, was the 25,000th volunteer to earn Spice Time Credits. Peter volunteers every Thursday for the “Wheels For All” session at Moor Park in Preston, which offers the use of adapted cycles for adults with special needs or disabilities.According to Spice, Time Credits is now the biggest alternative currency in the world. Individuals receive a Time Credit for each hour they donate to their local community, which can be spent on community, cultural and leisure activities in the local area. Spice Time Credits can also be spent across its national network of partners, including the Tower of London, St Paul’s Cathedral or the Wales Millennium Centre.Founded in South Wales in 2009, Spice currently works with over 700 groups and community organisations with over 500 venues accepting Time Credits. Time Credits are similar to bank notes, but have no monetary value. All notes have a standard reverse side in all areas, with the front localised.Becky Booth, Spice founder and chief executive officer, said:“The vision is to build resilient and connected communities, with social change as a priority. Time Credits are a way for people and organisations to identify with what we are trying to do and, by joining the scheme, help to make it happen, and they can be used anywhere in the country. You can earn the credit in Lancashire, but be able to spend it in places including Cardiff or London, or vice versa. Through the scheme people can try new things on their doorstep and across the country.” 67 total views, 1 views today Advertisement Tagged with: Volunteering Melanie May | 9 June 2016 | News
Bar Council Of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim To Disburse INR 5000 Each To Lawyers In Need Of Financial Assistance; Notifies Scheme [Read Notification]
News UpdatesBar Council Of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim To Disburse INR 5000 Each To Lawyers In Need Of Financial Assistance; Notifies Scheme [Read Notification] LIVELAW NEWS NETWORK29 April 2020 4:25 AMShare This – xThe Bar Council of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim has announced a one-time financial assistance of Rs. 5,000/-, for Advocates in distress due to loss of court work during the lockdown. To this end, the State Bar Council has devised a scheme namely “The Bar Council of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim Covid–19…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginThe Bar Council of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim has announced a one-time financial assistance of Rs. 5,000/-, for Advocates in distress due to loss of court work during the lockdown. To this end, the State Bar Council has devised a scheme namely “The Bar Council of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim Covid–19 Financial Assistance Scheme”. Benefits under the scheme will be applicable to the advocates, enrolled with the Bar Council of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh & Sikkim, who are in dire need, subject to approval of the scheme by the BCI. As per the eligibility criteria for the financial aid, an applicant: should be in active practice;should not have any other source of income and should not be an income tax payee. Further, the applicant should not have a total savings of more than Rs. 30,000/- as on 15 March 2020;should not be in receipt of any pension or any kind of remittance;should not be dependent on his/her parent(s) and if the applicant is married, his/her spouse should not have any source of income, pension or any kind or remittance;should have passed the All India Bar Examination, if the AIBE is mandatory for him/her. The scheme is not applicable to Standing Counsel/ Government Advocate/ Government Pleader/ Public Prosecutor/ Additional Public Prosecutor/ Assistant Public Prosecutor/ Retainer Advocate/ Counsel, etc. of any company/ bank/ PSU/ Government/ semi–Government authority/ university/ college, etc. or a Notary. Application To avail benefits under the scheme, an application form (as prescribed) has to be filed by way of e-mail to: [email protected] or in person or by Post/ courier, addressed to the Chairman of the State Bar Council, latest by May 7, 2020. The application will be accompanied by supporting documents, as prescribed in the scheme. Shortlisting The applications will be scrutinized and the beneficiaries will be shortlisted by a Special Committee comprising of six members, including the Chairman of the State Bar Council. The Committee will decide and fix the amount to be given as financial assistance to the applicant under the scheme and the total number of beneficiaries to be extended the assistance at a particular time, taking into consideration the total quantum of funds available Disbursement Of Assistance The amount of financial assistance will be transferred to the bank accounts of the respective selected beneficiaries, as mentioned by them in their application forms, by way of NEFT/ RTGS. The bank account of the applicant has to be in his/her own name, otherwise his/her application will stand rejected. It has been cautioned that if any applicant furnishes false statement for the purposes of this scheme, appropriate action will be taken against such applicant. The scheme has been devised owing to the obligations of the State Bar Councils under the Advocates Act, 1961, to safeguard of the rights, privileges and interests of advocates. Section 6(2)(a) of the said Act lays down that a State Bar Council may constitute one or more funds in the prescribed manner for the purpose of giving financial assistance to organise welfare schemes for the indigent advocates. The Bar Councils of Delhi and Rajasthan have also decided to provide financial assistance of Rs. 5,000 to Advocates in need. Similarly, the Bar Council of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry had also resolved to extend financial assistance to all those needy advocates, who are unable to meet their day to day expenses due to the lockdown. Recently, the Bar Council of West Bengal also informed the Calcutta High Court during hearing of a letter petition that it has decided to provide financial assistance to needy lawyers. In related news, a petition has been filed before the Supreme Court, seeking formulation of a national level uniform scheme for giving financial assistance to lawyers in times of emergencies. 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Facebook Pinterest By News Highland – November 12, 2020 Homepage BannerNews Twitter Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic WhatsApp Gardaí are investigating an attempted armed robbery in Clonmany. The incident happened at the local post office at around 5pm yesterday evening.A man armed with a weapon entered the premises and demanded money. No staff members were injured, no money was taken and no property was damaged. The male fled the scene before the arrival of Gardaí. Enquiries are currently ongoing.Gardaí are appealing to any motorists, including taxis, who may have dash cam footage of the area during this time, to make it available. Anyone with information is asked to contact Buncrana Garda Station on 074 9320 540, the Garda Confidential Line on 1800 666 111, or any Garda Station. Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Facebook Google+ Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA WhatsApp Twitter Community Enhancement Programme open for applications Previous articleBrexit: Calls for urgent financial support for food & drink sectorNext articleReports suggest Mickey Harte’s extension request turned down News Highland News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme Pinterest Gardaí investigating armed robbery in Clonmany Google+
Homepage BannerNews Google+ Nine til Noon Show – Listen back to Monday’s Programme WhatsApp Facebook Google+ Pinterest L’kenny Gardaí detect two motorists, one 40km/h over limit Gardaí from Letterkenny’s Roads Policing Unit have made two significant detection on Bank Holiday Sunday.Officers carrying out speed checks in the Letterkenny area detected one vehicle travelling at 138km/h and another at 140km/h.Both detections were made in a 100km/h speed limit zone.The Gardaí have renewed their calls for motorists to slow down, particularly over the wake of a number of fatal crashes across the country in recent days. Twitter Arranmore progress and potential flagged as population grows Important message for people attending LUH’s INR clinic Twitter Facebook Previous articleDownings retain All Ireland crown: Kevin Gallagher ReactionNext articleAll Ireland Gaeltacht Finals Report News Highland RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Pinterest Community Enhancement Programme open for applications WhatsApp By News Highland – June 3, 2019 Loganair’s new Derry – Liverpool air service takes off from CODA
Previous Article Next Article Sue Nickson, Partner and Head of the National Emploment Law Unit at HammondSuddards, looks at cyberspace and communication issues in the workplaceThe development of “communication technology” has had a massiveimpact on the workplace environment, most notably in relation to the use ofe-mail and the Internet. In just a few years the growth of electronic media andits use by employees in the workplace has increased at an exceptionally fastpace. E-mail and the Internet have significant advantages for businesses,however their simplistic and informal nature can also cause employersdifficulties. It is these characteristics that cause e-mail users to expressthemselves in an informal speaking manner rather than the more formal writtenor oral expressions they would normally use. The difficulties caused can beanything from the mistaken formation of a contract to the making of offensiveand possibly actionable comments against an individual. Telephone use in theworkplace is another problematic area. Below we examine the main issues toconsider regarding cyberspace and telecommunications and the ways in which anemployer may avoid the potential legal and practical pitfalls. E-mail harassment It is essential that all employers are aware of the very real potential forharassment to occur via e-mails, which could then result in a discriminationclaim. The same rules apply as to any other form of harassment. So if an e-mailamounts to treating an individual less favourably than another due to theirsex, race and so on, and this results in a detriment to that individual, thenan act of discrimination will have occurred. This is the case, regardless ofthe intention behind the act. Where an employee carries out an act in the course of his or her employment,the employer is vicariously liable for that act. This is even where the act wascarried out in an unauthorised way. In order to defend a discrimination claim,the employer has to show that it took all reasonably practicable steps toprevent the employees from doing the discriminatory act. This raises the importanceof employers monitoring the use of e-mails and having a policy and guidelinesin place. Once an issue of e-mail harassment has been raised and the harasseridentified, immediate action should be taken to stop the harassment andinstigate the disciplinary procedure while supporting the harassed employee. This area is particularly significant in view of the scope for e-mails toreach a more extensive audience with the use of the forward facility. It islikely that in the same way that motive is irrelevant, the fact that otherswere not supposed to see the e-mail will be irrelevant and that the initialdistribution of the information will be sufficient for there to be a claim ofdiscrimination and potential liability for the organisation. Internet access at work – what are the issues? With both the ability to transmit text, data, programs, images and soundsand access a worldwide e-mail system, the Internet is another area wherestriking a balance can be difficult for the employer. Internet access may be anintegral part of an employee’s job, and/or an employer may be agreeable to areasonable amount of private use of the Internet, but both can lead to abuse. One area of increasing concern for employers is the ability of employees toaccess sexually explicit material on the Internet. Employers again need to beaware of the risk of discrimination by the viewing, forwarding or displaying ofpornographic material. The case of Morse v Future Reality, 1996, case no 54571/95, London (North),ET, showed that for a discrimination claim to be brought, it did not just haveto be a direct act, but could be the creation of a general atmosphere ofobscenity in the office by the downloading and circulating of sexually explicitmaterial that had a detrimental impact on the applicant. In this case, Morseshared an office with a number of male colleagues who spent a lot of timelooking at sexually explicit and obscene images on the Internet. The malecolleagues did draw Morse’s attention to some specific pictures, but on thewhole the images were more generally discussed and circulated. This behaviour made Morse feel uncomfortable, although she accepted that itwas not directed at her personally. Morse eventually resigned, claiming sexdiscrimination on the grounds of harassment. She identified the pictures, thelanguage and atmosphere in the office as all contributing to the sexualharassment she was subjected to. The tribunal agreed with Morse and found thatFuture Reality was liable as no steps had been taken to avoid thediscrimination. Whether or not an employer can dismiss an employee who uses the Internet forthese purposes will depend on the organisation’s disciplinary or computer usepolicy. Unless either of these state that downloading and/or circulatingpornography will result in dismissal, it is unlikely that using the Internet inthis way will be sufficient to summarily dismiss. This was the conclusion reached in the case of Dunn v IBM United Kingdom,1998, case no 2305087/97, London (South), ET. Mr Dunn had been dismissed forhis misuse of the Internet, in that he had accessed pornography and othernon-business materials. The employer dismissed for gross misconduct and thetribunal upheld the complaint of unfair dismissal, in that there was not aclear breach of policy which warranted summary dismissal. In contrast, in the case of Parr v Derwentside District Council, case no2501507/98, Newcastle Upon Tyne, ET, Parr was dismissed for gross misconduct onthe basis that he had been accessing sexually explicit pictures and images onthe Internet at work. A full investigation and disciplinary hearing wereconducted, before the council concluded that Parr was to be dismissed. Thetribunal dismissed Parr’s claim for unfair dismissal on the basis that thecouncil had fully investigated the matter and found that Parr had breachedestablished rules of conduct and therefore breached his duty of trust andconfidence. The exception to this is if the material is so obscene or paedophiliac as toamount to a criminal offence. An employee would then be liable to be dismissedfor gross misconduct, even in the absence of any organisational rules andprocedures, as the employee is being disciplined in respect of the criminaloffence not the use of the Internet. In circumstances where there are noprocedures on this, however, it is clear that viewing pornography on theInternet is not an authorised use, and therefore disciplinary warnings couldculminate in a fair dismissal. These same disciplinary principles apply to other unauthorised use ofcomputers. Without a policy specifying what is and is not acceptable use, anemployer will find it difficult to dismiss for what it regards to be anunauthorised purpose, unless the act of the employee again becomes a criminal offence,for example under the Computer Misuse Act 1990. Policies and procedures – an essential requirement There is clearly a need for all organisations to have a policy dealing withthe issues surrounding the use of computers in the workplace. It is importantthat each policy is drafted specifically for an organisation, taking account ofthat business’s need for access and control of that access. However, thefollowing are some basic elements that should be included in any computerpolicy: – Ensure the policy is in writing and incorporated into the employeehandbook or manual and referred to in the contracts of employment anddisciplinary procedure. – Specify the authorised and prohibited uses of the Internet, e-mail and anyother relevant computer uses. – In particular, specify that the system is not to be used to view ordistribute any improper material such as text, messages or images which arederogatory, defamatory, obscene or otherwise inappropriate. – Provide details of access and any limits and the rules on conduct duringuse. – Employees should be warned that a mere deletion of a file may not removeit from the system. – A clear statement that violation of the policy will result in disciplinaryaction which could lead to dismissal. Specify those actions for which anemployee could be summarily dismissed, for example harassment, discriminationor viewing or distributing pornographic material. Employees should be asked to sign a form acknowledging and accepting thepolicy. The policy should name an individual as a contact point for any queriesor issues that may need to be raised. How much an organisation ties this policyin with other policies such as harassment and bullying policies is a matter ofchoice so long as all the above areas are covered. These essential elements will ensure that employers have set out theorganisation’s position, will give them disciplinary remedies to deal with anyabuse and will provide some protection from possible claims of unfair dismissaland discrimination – although, as with any policy, the key to effectiveimplementation is the training of employees in all aspects, particularly onwhat amounts to computer misuse and what the consequences can be. Privacy issues As part of any policy an employer should specify that the organisationreserves the right to monitor and disclose any matters sent over the system orstored in it. In the absence of any such statement, employees may assume thattheir e-mail is private, that is they may have an “expectation of privacy”.The European Convention of Human Rights, which will be implemented in the UKin October this year by the Human Rights Act 1998, also impacts on the privacyissue. Article 8 of the convention specifically provides for the right torespect for family and private life, home and correspondence and states thatthere shall be no interference by a public authority in the exercise of thatright. The importance of article 8 was addressed in the case of Halford v UnitedKingdom, 1997, IRLR 471, which also demonstrated the need for employers to havea clear policy which has been communicated to employees. This case establishedthat communications in the form of personal telephone calls made by an employeefrom the premises of her employer were covered by the protection of article 8.The employee had a reasonable expectation of privacy because she had not beenwarned that calls made using the internal telephone system were liable to beintercepted. An additional point for employers to consider in this area is the new Regulationof Investigatory Powers Bill – the RIP Bill. The RIP Bill in its current formwill make it illegal for an employer to monitor an employee’s telephoneconversations or e-mail messages without obtaining the permission of bothparties – the recipient and sender. The RIP Bill could leave employers in theposition of not being able to monitor their employees’ use of the Internet,e-mail or telephones. The Government has, however, indicated that regulations will be issued tocontrol the effect of the Bill. It is thought that the regulations will requireemployers to consult with employee representatives and trade unions about theirmonitoring activities. Full details of these regulations are awaited withinterest. In the meantime, however, employers need to take greater care whendismissing employees on the basis of Internet, e-mail or telephone misuse, andshould also include in their policy an express statement of consent tomonitoring form that all employees should sign. Companies also need to considerhaving a similar consent form signed by identifiable potential recipients. Telephone calls – what regulations currently apply? The issues surrounding the privacy of telephone calls has been highlightedin recent years, not only by the Alison Halford case but also by thesignificant increase in the amount of business conducted over the telephone,particularly with the growth of call centres. Organisations are thereforefinding that there is a greater need to record or monitor telephone calls inorder to train and supervise employees, and ensure consistency of the qualityof service provided. The recording and monitoring of telephone calls is currently covered by thePrivacy of Messages condition of the Self-Provision Licence (SPL) and the TelecommunicationServices Licence (TSL), and Oftel guidance. The main requirement of the Privacy of Messages condition is that everyreasonable effort has been made to inform all parties to a telephoneconversation that it may or will be recorded. But these rules do not deal withthe wider issue of privacy of employees in the workplace. In light of theconvention and the pending implementation of the Human Rights Act together withthe issues raised in the Halford case, the Oftel guidance has been published. The guidance draws employers’ attention to the right of privacy contained inarticle 8 of the convention and the legitimate expectation of privacy thatemployees have in respect of personal calls made at work. The guidance confirmsthe need for this expectation to be removed by warning employees that theirphone calls at work may be recorded or monitored. But the guidance also points out that it is unreasonable to assume employeeswill never need to make or receive personal calls at work, and that provisionshould therefore be made for employees to make such calls free from recordingor monitoring. This could be dealt with by providing access to a payphone orcertain lines that are secure and are not monitored or recorded. The guidanceis arguably breaking new ground as it suggests that there is an obligation onemployers to provide access to a private telephone. Whether this is the caseremains to be seen. It is important, however, that employees continue to be informed about therecording or monitoring of work phones as provided by the Privacy of Messagescondition. Clearly all employers would be well advised to develop a policy orguidelines for employees along the same lines as the computer policy detailedabove, to ensure that all employees are clear in relation to the use andprivacy or otherwise of telephone calls at work. However, employers should becautious to ensure that any interception is necessary, reasonable and aproportionate response to the issue that has been raised and consider the implicationsof the RIP Bill as already discussed. The future? Although case law and legislation in this area in the UK is still developingand fairly limited, we only need to look to the US, where the use of computersand communication systems is more advanced and the case law more established,to see that this is an area that is going to continue to develop and remain asignificant area for employers. Employers who have not already done so willneed to give their immediate attention to introducing policies and proceduresin this area, in order to avoid the otherwise inevitable risks and liabilities.Potential areas of liability for employers: – Employment Law – e-mail harassment and the unauthorised use of computers – Criminal law – employees may be involved in hacking into systems ordownloading obscene pornography – Intellectual property – there may be issues over downloading anddistributing copyright material or software – Defamation – actions could result from inaccurately worded e-mails, mademore likely by the informal nature of e-mails – Agency law – employees could mistakenly create a contract via e-mails – Breach of contract – greater risk of inadvertently forming and breachingcontracts due to the informal nature of e-mails – Breach of confidentiality/trade secrets – Possibility of such specificbreaches Hammond Suddards’ Employment Unit is one of the largest and mostrespected in the UK, providing advice on all aspects of contentious andnon-contentious employment law. For more information on employment law pleasecontact Sue Nickson, Partner and Head of the National Employment Law Unit, on0161-830 5000 Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Cyberspace and communication issues in the workplaceOn 1 Jun 2000 in Personnel Today
Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos. Business ethics rules may be the right moveOn 2 Jul 2002 in Personnel Today The last week has not been a good advertisement for globalisation, what withWorldCom and the shoddy G8 meeting on world poverty in Canada. Meanwhile, back in Europe, the EU is drawing up proposals for a directive oncorporate social responsibility which could force organisations to report onissues including their record on the environment, diversity at work and theirrelationship with local communities. DTI minister Stephen Timms is gearing up for a battle to stop any such lawreaching the statute books, and he will get the support of many in the businesscommunity. For HR professionals the CSR movement offers complex challenges. Where CSRhas clear benefits, to the employer brand and recruitment for example, HR has adefinite remit to embrace it. Where CSR smacks of altruism and business ethicsfor the sake of it, HR is wary of appearing to promote welfare issues at theexpense of the bottom line – a perception that could send the profession backto the dark ages. But CSR is an issue that needs to be filtered carefully through all of ourconsciences. Business has a poor track record on taking responsibility forstakeholders other than shareholders, and in the case of WorldCom, even theshareholders have been abused. The argument that restrictions and legislation would stifle the voluntaryapproach to CSR does not hold water. Companies only turn to CSR voluntarilybecause they understand the business benefits that come in terms of customerloyalty, recruitment and staff morale. They will not abandon these approachesbecause a CSR law has been introduced as it would not make business sense to doso. It is where there is no business benefit or, worse, an incentive to behaveirresponsibly that legislation is needed. Any support for CSR rules needs to behedged around with qualifications, but it would be irresponsible to reject theidea simply out of principle. By Noel O’Reilly Comments are closed.